Massimo Fioranelli
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Angina treatment
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Coronary heart disease causes narrowing of the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle. The consequences of coronary heart disease include stable angina (intermittent but predictable chest pain), unstable angina (angina that is new in onset, occurs at rest, or has a worsening pattern), heart attack (myocardial infarction), or death.
There are several treatment options for people with stable angina. These options are classified as medical treatment (which include medications and lifestyle modifications) or interventional treatment (surgical treatment with percutaneous coronary intervention, with or without a stent, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery). The choice among these treatment options depends upon many individual factors, including a person's age, the severity of the coronary heart disease, the relative risks and benefits of various treatments, the presence of other medical conditions, and personal preferences.
Because coronary heart disease is typically a chronic disease requiring long-term treatment, it is very important to learn as much as possible about this disease and about the benefits and risks of the various treatment options. You should discuss all of these options with a healthcare provider to determine which treatment is best.
GOALS OF ANGINA TREATMENT All of the medical and interventional treatments for people with coronary heart disease have the same goals: to improve quality of life and to alleviate symptoms such as angina. In some people, these interventions may also delay or stop the progression of the disease and thereby prolong life.
MEDICAL ANGINA TREATMENT Medical treatment for coronary heart disease includes drugs called antianginal drugs, which alleviate symptoms and support heart function. It also includes lifestyle modifications. Medical treatment is usually considered first for all people with coronary heart disease.
INTERVENTIONAL ANGINA TREATMENT The interventional treatments for coronary heart disease include the following: Angioplasty, with or without stent placement Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG).
These treatments effectively relieve symptoms of coronary heart disease, such as angina, but they do not significantly increase life expectancy for most people. Because these treatments actively restore blood flow to the heart muscle, they are often called revascularization procedures.
Angioplasty Angioplasty, also known as percutaneous coronary intervention, uses a balloon to dilate narrowed arteries in the heart and may include placement of a stent to hold the artery open.
oronary artery bypass graft surgery Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) involves sewing one end of an artery or vein above a blocked coronary artery and the other end below the blockage, thereby allowing blood an alternate pathway to the heart. The arteries or veins used for the bypass (which are known as "grafts") are usually obtained from the leg or the chest wall.
MEDICAL VERSUS INTERVENTIONAL ANGINA TREATMENT Several factors can help determine whether medical or interventional treatment is a better choice. You should discuss all of these factors with your healthcare provider.
Results of studies As a result of studies that compared medical to interventional treatment, many experts do not recommend using interventional treatment initially unless you have certain characteristics or you cannot tolerate or do not improve with aggressive medical treatment.
Results of tests Certain tests are used to determine the extent of coronary heart disease. These tests may determine if medical or interventional treatment is more appropriate and can help decide which interventional option (angioplasty or bypass surgery) is best. As examples:
Exercise ECG testing An exercise test can often determine if you have a risk of a heart attack or cardiac death. The test involves running on a treadmill or bicycling while an electrocardiogram is continuously monitored. In some cases, a radioactive tracer such as thallium or sestamibi is used to identify the particular regions in the heart that are not getting enough blood.
Exercise testing provides information about the effects of coronary heart disease on the heart's ability to function at different levels of exertion. Advantages of this test are that it is noninvasive and particularly useful for identifying the small percentage of people with stable angina who have a high risk of heart attack and death from their coronary heart disease.
Angiography Angiography (also known as cardiac catheterization) involves passing a small catheter into the coronary arteries. Dye is injected into the artery and an x-ray image is used to show the outline of any blockages. Angiography is usually recommended for people who are considered to have "high risk" disease based upon the results of other tests, such as the exercise tests described above. The results of angiography can then help determine if angioplasty or bypass surgery is a better choice.
Age Interventional treatments have more risks in older people. For example, the risk of dying from bypass surgery is about 3 times greater for people who are 79 years or older compared to people who are 50 years of age.
On the other hand, older people often have the most to gain from bypass surgery; in older patients (>75 years of age), bypass surgery has a greater life-prolonging benefit relative to medical treatment. Therefore, advancing age does not necessarily rule out angioplasty or bypass surgery as treatment options.
Severity of angina People who have angina are usually managed with medical treatment initially unless testing indicates that the person could have severe disease. If medical treatment does not significantly improve symptoms of angina or if the person cannot tolerate medical treatment, arteriography followed by angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft surgery may be recommended.
Angioplasty has not been shown to prolong life compared with medical therapy. Angioplasty is used principally to improve angina symptoms when medications have failed.
Advanced heart disease Heart disease may lead to poor pumping function of the left ventricle (the heart chamber that pumps blood to the body), and it may even lead to a serious condition called heart failure.
People with these advanced types of heart disease may benefit more from interventional treatments, primarily bypass surgery, than from medical treatment. In fact, interventional treatment may even reverse abnormal function of the left ventricle in some cases. However, interventional procedures are associated with greater risks in people with advanced heart disease.


Narrowing of coronary arteries Interventional treatment is usually more beneficial than medical treatment when the coronary arteries are severely narrowed, when many coronary arteries are narrowed, and when the left main coronary artery (the artery that supplies blood to the left side of the heart) is narrowed. These early patterns of arterial narrowing often predict how severe heart damage would be if a heart attack occurs. People who have at least three narrowed coronary arteries are usually advised to undergo interventional treatment, most often bypass surgery. People who have two narrowed coronary arteries are usually advised to have interventional treatment. People who have only one narrowed coronary artery are advised to use medical treatment. If angina persists with medical treatment, then angioplasty, with or without a stent, or coronary bypass graft surgery may be recommended.
Peripheral arterial disease Peripheral arterial disease refers to narrowing of arteries in parts of the body other than the heart. For example, arteries that supply blood to the arms and legs or to the brain may be narrowed. Studies suggest that people with peripheral vascular disease have greater risks from angioplasty and bypass surgery, and medical treatment may therefore be a better choice.


Gibbons, RJ, Abrams, J, Chatterjee, K, et al. ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for the management of patients with chronic stable angina--summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on the Management of Patients With Chronic Stable Angina). Circulation 2003; 107:149.

Eagle, KA, Guyton, RA, Davidoff, R, et al. ACC/AHA 2004 guideline update for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1999 Guidelines for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery). Circulation 2004; 110:e340.

Scanlon, PJ, Faxon, DP, Audet, A-M, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for coronary angiography: Executive summary and recommendations. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on coronary angiography). Circulation 1999; 99:2345.

Weintraub, W, Spertus, J, Kolm, P, et al. Effect of PCI on quality of life in patients wtih stable coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:677.



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