Massimo Fioranelli
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History of Medicine

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The evolution of cardiac catherization and interventional cardiology

Claude Bernard (1813–1878). Auguste Chauveau (1827–1917).Etienne Jules Marey (1830–1904). First cardiac catheterization in a horse by Chauveau and Marey. Curves recorded by Chauveau and Marey. Catheter introduced by Chauveau and Marey into the left ventricle via the left carotid. Adolph Fick (1829–1901).

The advent of cardiac catheterization: animal and experimental studies

The evolution of cardiac catherization and interventional cardiology

Michel E. Bertrand. First X-ray picture obtained by Roentgen: the hand of his wife. First arteriogram obtained by injection of mercury compounds into the brachial artery of a cadaver. X-ray record showing the catheter in the right atrium The Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology: October 1956.

The first human catheterizations

The evolution of cardiac catherization and interventional cardiology

André Cournand. Double-lumen catheter. Pressure curves: right ventricle, using double-lumen catheter. Pierre Maurice. Endocardial electrocardiogram. The three awardees of the Nobel Prize in 1956: Werner Forssmann, Dickinson W. Richards and André F. Cournand.

Investigation of the pulmonary circulation

The evolution of cardiac catherization and interventional cardiology:

  1. Left heart catheterization and percutaneous transfemoral coronary angiography

  2. Transseptal left heart catheterization

  3. Right cardiac catheterization with floating probes

  4. The pulmonary artery flow-directed balloon catheter

  5. Coronary angiography

  6. The first coronary angioplasties in Zurich

  7. Andreas Gruentzig in Atlanta

  8. ‘‘My first angioplasty’’

  9. The steerable catheters

  10. The monorail technique

  11. Catheter-delivered ultrasound for the treatment of peripheral and coronary artery disease

  12. The Cutting Balloon

  13. Recanalization and reperfusion in myocardial infarction

  14. The first stent implantation in man

  15. History of vascular stenting

  16. The Wallstent, the Wiktor stent, and drug-eluting stents

  17. Development of the Palmaz stent

  18. Percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty using the double-balloon technique

  19. Trefoil balloon valvuloplasty

  20. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty

  21. The percutaneous mitral commissurotome

  22. From the butcher to the jeweller

  23. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement

  24. Catheter-based septal ablation for patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy



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